3D printing prototype technology (3DP) is a rapid prototyping technology.It is based on the digital model file, using powder metal or plastic bonding materials to build objects of a technology.3D printing prototype technology can be divided into the following types:
1.Laser selective sintering/melting (SLS/SLM)
The idea of SLM technology was first proposed in 1995 by the Fraunhofer institute in Germany. The basic principle of SLM technology is that the powder on the molten substrate is processed layer by layer by laser beam until the whole part is finished
Main materials: powder of plastic, wax, ceramic, metal or its compound Pros: can produce complex parts without support.
Disadvantages: limited by the density of adhesive laid, some 3D technical products have low density.
2.3d printing technology (3DP)
3DP technology was first developed by Emanual Sachs et al., Massachusetts institute of technology.3DP technology is mainly used to make parts by bonding the powder into a whole through the binder ejected from the nozzle.3DP technology has changed the traditional part design pattern and truly realized the transformation from conceptual design to model design.
Main materials: quartz sand, ceramic powder, gypsum powder, polymer powder and other powder consumables Advantages: no high cost components such as laser, low cost, and easy to operate and maintain;Fast processing speed;Printable color prototype;Consumable and forming materials are relatively cheap and the cost of printing is low.
Disadvantages: short development time, some related technology monopoly phenomenon.
3.Fused deposition molding (FDM)
This type of 3D printing prototype technology was successfully developed by American scholar Scott Crump in 1988. It takes thermoplastic filaments as raw materials, which are melted by a mobile liquefier and then ejected, and components are stacked layer by layer, line by line.
Main materials: polypropylene, ABS casting paraffin, etc Advantages: low cost, simple structure, high use efficiency of raw materials and no toxic or chemical pollution.
Disadvantages: the molding speed is relatively slow, the nozzle is easy to block, inconvenient maintenance.
4..Photocurable rapid prototyping technology (SLA)
SLA technology is to realize single layer curing through laser scanning exposure.Through the ultraviolet laser beam, in accordance with the design of the original layer section, point by point curing, from point and line, from line to surface, through the lifting platform movement, layer by layer superposition to complete the 3d printing.
Main materials: liquid photosensitive resin, etc
Advantages: high molding accuracy;The density of sintered parts is good.
Disadvantages: follow-up processing trouble;Secondary curing is a serious problem.